Faravid – Historian ja arkeologian tutkimuksen aikakauskirja 2020-12-09T15:42:50+02:00 Matti Mäntylä Open Journal Systems <p>Faravid on Pohjois-Suomen Historiallinen Yhdistys ry:n julkaisema kahdesti vuodessa ilmestyvä historian ja arkeologian tutkimuksen aikakauskirja.</p> A Necessary Union with a Powerful but Divided People: The Covenant-Centred British Agenda of the Scottish Covenanters during the British Civil Wars 2020-12-09T15:41:10+02:00 Esko Nevalainen <p>The article concentrates on the international, and particularly British, dimension of the collective identity of the Scottish Covenanting elite during the British Civil Wars from 1637 to 1649. The Covenanters’ identity is studied by the interconnection of the key concepts within the reformation scheme and the Covenanting schema and also by the Scots’ images of the English. The Covenanting Scots’ aspirations seemed to communicate a strong sense of British identity as they reached for a reformed and covenanted British union. The Protestant Reformed Christianity that the Covenanters represented was, and still is, an international religion, and it is notable that the Covenanters also had greater pan-Protestant visions, such as their plan for a Palatinate expedition, inspired by their Providential beliefs. The Scottish sense of Britishness was linked to European Protestant culture and politics and, in the spirit of the Second Reformation, they displayed outward-looking ideas about the future.</p> <p>The Covenanters’ images of the English reflect ambivalence. Clearly the English royalists and the “Canterburian faction” were seen as enemies and the “godly Puritans” as brethren. But even the English Parliamentarians, due to their factional rivalries and strengthening of the Independents, were seen as weak, indecisive and factional people. However, the English nation’s power was duly recognised, not underestimated. References to English divisiveness seemed to reflect the inverse ideal self-image of the Covenanters as unified, dutiful to the Covenant, standing for a Reformed and orderly church government and also for a limited monarchy.</p> <p>It is useful in an aspirational sense to discuss a British Protestant identity in regards to the Scottish Covenanters and say that the Scots were “more British” and internationally oriented than their English counterparts. They understood that it was necessary to achieve their aspirations in cooperation with the English. This “Britishness” seems to have increased a sense of national identity among the English Parliamentarians just as fervently with a Protestant spirit as that of the Covenanting identity. In this discourse of cooperation and disputes between the Scottish Covenanters and English Parliamentarians, the Covenanters’ unrealised ideal supplied the English with additional resources; the political turmoil eventually led to a revolution but not to the British union to which the Covenanters aspired. Regarding the mid-seventeenth-century Anglo-Scottish relations, the English resolutions mattered greatly to the Scottish people, just as they seem to do currently in the case of “Brexit”. Indeed, the unifying essence of British identity is hard to perceive in both cases, though there clearly were and are reflections of it to be found.</p> 2020-12-09T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Esko Nevalainen ja Pohjois-Suomen Historiallinen Yhdistys ry Provinssin valistusporvareita – Johan ja Baltzar Fellmanin kirjasto Raahessa 1800-luvulla 2020-12-09T15:41:35+02:00 Kari Mäki <p>The aim of the article is to describe the collections of books that belonged to Johan (1781–1870) and Baltzar (1789–1862) Fellman in the context of their merchant career and book history. Most of Fellman’s books were found in a project that aimed to revive the historical book collection of Raahe Business College. Bibliographic data was collected from this collection, as well as from the collections of the Raahe library and museum, on the 135 works of the brothers in nearly 300 volumes. The identification of books as belonging to Johan and Baltzar Fellman was mainly based on inscriptions and, for some books, on a school library catalogue. Actual physical book collections have rarely been used in 19th century research in Finland.</p> <p>The results of the study gave a surprisingly diverse picture of Fellman's library. In fact, its composition is very similar to libraries owned by other coastal Swedish-speaking bourgeoisie engaged in foreign trade and literary activities at the end of &nbsp;the 18th and early 19th century according to estate inventory deeds: mainly historical works, biographies, travel literature, dictionaries, trading and maritime guides and religious charter literature printed in Sweden.</p> <p>Johan and Baltzar Fellman’s library, however, had their peculiarities and the brothers also adopted the literary culture of their time in different ways. The former had plenty of science and textbooks from various fields and books in English, including the collected works of Shakespeare and Pope, Sterne’s novels, and reissues of 18th century literary journalism. Fiction in English was still rare in Finland at the beginning of the 19th century. The younger brother seems to have appreciated personal geographical and historical narratives. Fellman’s collections consisted mostly of non-fiction and professional literature after they became interested in shipping and started a joint business in the late 1810s. With a few exceptions, the output of Finnish printing houses was not evident until the 1840s.</p> <p>The study raised questions concerning book owner identification and the mobility and loss of books that pose challenges to historical research. In addition to the lack of more recent fiction, there was a lack of law books and only a few religious works. The results obtained were considered in the light of source-critical discussions on book ownership research as well as the values adopted by the brothers. Further analysis on books as individual objects is required to bring out the material dimension of the print culture of an Ostrobothnian town in the golden age of sail.</p> 2020-12-09T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Kari Mäki ja Pohjois-Suomen Historiallinen Yhdistys ry Maailma oli jo pieni – Japanin murros 1865–1868 suomalaisessa lehdistössä 2020-12-09T15:41:55+02:00 Olavi K. Fält 2020-12-09T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Olavi K. Fält ja Pohjois-Suomen Historiallinen Yhdistys ry Koittaako vapaus? Unkarin kansannousu 1956 ja vuosien 1957–1958 kiristyvä kirkkopolitiikka Församlingsbladet-lehdessä 2020-12-09T15:42:13+02:00 Timo Kapanen 2020-12-09T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Timo Kapanen ja Pohjois-Suomen Historiallinen Yhdistys ry Väestö ja asutus Suomessa ja Skandinaviassa myöhäiskeskiajalla 2020-12-09T15:42:33+02:00 Jouko Vahtola 2020-12-09T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Jouko Vahtola ja Pohjois-Suomen Historiallinen Yhdistys ry Hyvinvointivaltion juurilla. Liberaalipuolueet ja sosiaaliliberalismi hyvinvointivaltion perustan luojina 2020-12-09T15:42:50+02:00 Juha Kolumäki 2020-12-09T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Juha Kolumäki ja Pohjois-Suomen Historiallinen Yhdistys ry